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VIEW 



CITY OF NEW-ORANGE, 



(NOW KEW-YORK,) 



AS XT WAS IN- THE YEAR 



^m%: 



WITH EXPLANATORY NOTES, 



BY JOSEPH W. MOULTON, Esq.. 



Sovtiiern Dislric! n/JVew-Yorfc, ss. 

HE IT i E[\IK^.B^.R5 r, That on the second day of 
August, A D. iy-25. in \[u liftieth year of 'he inde-pend^i.t'e 
of ti>e Uniled .-^latesol" America, Josrvu Vv IVIoui.to.n. l.sq. 
of the saifl district, hath deposited in tijis oifice the tilU- of a 
book, the tight whereoi he claims as proprietor, in <he words 
following, <o wit . 

*' riew of the City oj New- Oravge, (now Nev-York,) as 
it was in tht year Iblo. li ilh Explanatory Notes. By Jo- 
seph IV. Mouitcu, Lsq.^^ 

]\ CONFORMITY to > he act of Congress of the United States, 
entitled, •* An act for the encourngera^.t of learning, by se- 
curing the copies ut in^ips. charts, and l.'orjks, lo the authors 
and p'oprietors ot.such copies, during the time tlierein men- 
tioned ," fliid also, to an act, entitled, " An act supplemen- 
tary to an act, entitled, an act for the encoura-t rnent of 
learning, by securing the cofjies of maps, citarts a'ld i)ooks, 
to tht authors snd proprietors of such copies, during the 
times therein mentioned,' and extending the benefits thereof 
to til.- arts of designing, engraving, and etching historical 
and other prints. 

JAMES DILL, 
Clerk of the Southern District of T^ew-York. 



tA^\ 



REPERENCIBS TO THE EXPLANATIONS, 

OP THE LETTERS AND FIGURES MARKED UPON THE VIEW. 

Leiters.^heL A, page 23. B, 25. C, 25, 29. D, 
25, 32. E, 25. F, 28. G, 30. H, 30, 23. I, 31, 39. 
K, 31—33. 10, 13, 15, 19. L, 34, 11, 14. M, 36, 19. 
N, 36, 10. O. 36. P, 37. Q, 38. R, 34, 35, 24. S, 
29, 26, 25. T, 35. 

Fizures.—F\^, 1. page 24,23. 2. 29, 30. 3.29,30. 
4. 30, 31. 6. 6. 7. 35, 39. 8. 23. 9. 35 10. 36,35. 
11. 36. 

Objects not indicated by letters or figures on the Vieio : — 
/iz. Streets — PearL page 23, 24. Win/eel, 30. Brug, 30. 
Hoog, 31. De JVarmoes, 34. Tun, 39. Prince, 31, 39. 
Cingel, 3d. Buraei's Path, 35. Mire lane, 34: Sheep 
pasture, 31. Public buildings — Citizens' guard house, 34. 
Corps de garde, 28. 1 2. Secretary's otfice, 28. Post oliice, 
28, 29, Cucking or ducking stool, 33. Wooden horse, 
8, 13. Whipping post, 8. Gallows, 8. City fire engine, 
8. Citv beiK 27, 2^. West India Company's garden and 
farm, si. Armed and private vessels, 7, ?3, 24 Commons 
or park, 9, 93. De Kolck, 9, 37. Bouwerj, 9. Corlear's 
Hook, 9, 38. 



32 7 



BH 



|Jo.v.-Mo.lt<,adri.) Ill lGl«i- (Rob'M.Cav 



I 



I CAUSED the prefixed View to be engraved for the 
purpose of embelhshiiig a future volume of the history of 
this state. In the progress of my researches I have been 
so fortunate as to collect authentic and unpublished facts,* 
which, though extremely curious and interesting, are too 
local in their application to fall within the scope of the 
general history. These I have prepared for my own 
amusement, and may publish them in the shape of histori- 
cal notes of the progress of the city, from the period when 
the first trading and tishing huts were erected upon this 
island to the date of the present view. 

I have ventured to look a little into that *' dark age" of 
our history, viz. the twenty years between the discovery by 
Hudson, in 1609, and arrival of governor Wouler Van 
Twiller in 1629, during which interval Christianse and 
Eelkes officiated as supreme authority under the tirst "pri- 
vileged trading company," and Peter Minuets as the first 
director-general or governor, under the " privileged Wes 
India company." I have traced the advancement of the 
city during the nine years' administration of Van Twiller, 
the nine years' administration of William Kieft, the seven- 
teen years' administration of Peter Stuyvesant, the nine 
years' administration of the English governors, Richard 
Nicolls and Francis Lovelace, and the one year and five 
months' administration of their Dutch successor, governor 
Anthonio Colve. J. W. M. 

* The principal portion of which I have gleaned from thirty manuscript 
volumes, folio, of public records. I am, also indebted to judge Benson's 
.Memoir for some information respecting the location of several street?. 



A 



CITY OF NEW-ORANGE, &c 



The city, until its surrender by governor Stuyvesant to 
the English in 1664, had been denominated New-Amster- 
dam, and during the governments of Nirolls and Lovelace, 
New-York. In August, 1673, while England was at war 
with Holland, a fleet belonging to the latter,and commanded 
by commodores Cornells Evertsen, junior, and Jacob 
Benches, captains Anthonio Co!ve, Nicolaes Boes, and 
Ab. Fierd. Van Z\ 11, recaptured New-York. Exercisingthe 
power of a supreme military tribunal, they named the city 
New-Orange, in compliment to the prince of Orange. 
Pursuant to the treaty of peace that closed the war in 1674, 
New-Orange, in the month of October, was re-delivered to 
the English, who resumed the name by which the city has 
been ever since distinguished. 

It was at the remarkable era when the above inter- 
mission of the English government occurred, that the pre- 
sent view was taken. It originally appeared published at 
Amsterdam in Holland, at the bottom of a map bearing 
this title : " Totius J^eo-Belgii nova et accuratissima Tabula 
apud Reinier and Joshua Ottens, Amstelodami, " The pro- 
spect had this inscription, Nieuw Amsterdam onlang 
Nituw Jorck genamt ende hernomen by de Mederland" 
ers op den 24 .^'*^. 1673, and underneath since has 
been added, emddijk aan de Engelst zveder afgestaan^ which 



plainly appears to be an addition, as it is engraved over 
the etchings of the clouds. It appears to me that this 
map was published bv the Dutch immediately after the 
surrender of N»;w- York to them in 1673, for the follovv- 
\n<j reasons: — First, by the inscription upon the prospect 
of the city, wherein it is said, Xezo Amsterdam, lately called 
New-York, and retaken by the Dutch on the 2Ath Aug, 1673. 
Now this appears to me to be a certain proof that it was 
published durin;t^ the time the Dutch were in possession of 
the place, or very shortly after, as the words finally quit- 
claimed again to the English, are written over the former 
•jravins:, as 1 observed before. Secondly, in the ornamental 
tij^ures over the said prospect, the principal is a woman 
crowned with a naval crown, resting upon a club, holding 
in the left hand a wreath of laurel ; behind her stands Mer- 
cury, and round her, Europeans and savages as returning their 
thanks to her for their liberty ; oae of the Indians ollering 
to her an Indian village which he holds in his hands, emhiem 
of the oiler of their lands, (the Dutch in their paintings run 
much in emblems and allegories,) and under the said figure 
is written the word Restitutio, Thirdly, in the map, below 
the south ^ide of Long Island, and near the entrance of the 
bay of New-York, are little ships anchored, and over them 
is written vloot van Corn Evertsen, which was the commo- 
dore that commanded the tleet that retook New- York. 
Fourthly and lastly, there is upon the street before the 
harbour in the prospect, the representation of some compa- 
nies of armed men, which, with the rest, seem to concur in 
asserting the date of the publication of the map at the time 
of the Dutch conquest." 

In 1769, an exact copy of this etching was taken by Du 
Simiticre,a French gentleman of taste, learning and research, 
well remembered as an amateur, by some of the elder 
citizens of New- York and Philadelphia, wherein he resided, 



andin the latter city founded a museum and ended his 
days. From his manuscript copy I drew the one from which 
the present view has been engraved.* His remarks above 
quoted appear conclusive that it was taken at the period 
of the re-capture. The reference on the original etching 
to the conquering fleet is particularly significant. The fleet 
in July, 1G7.3, anchored otF '' Nayah," at the outlet of the 
narrows, and near the very spot that the English conquer- 
ing fleet under Nicolls,&c. had moored, nineyears previously. 
The former approached the fort in August, and after the 
surrender of the city, continued some time in the north 
river. In fact the " fregatt Zee-hond" (Sea Dog,) com- 
manded by capt. Evertsen, and the'Surrinam,' a 44 gun ship 
under the immediatecontrol of Gov. Colve, did not return to 
Holland with the rest of the fleet, but at the urgent request 
of the Burgomasters, were left for the protection of the 
city. It is also a fact on record, that the Heeren-Gracht, (see 
view I) was filled up, and the street levelled and paved, 
three years only after the date of the present view in which 
i\ni gracht (canal) appears delineated. 

The view, as copied from Da Simitiere's manuscripts, is 
unaccompanied by explanations, except a few letters and 
Dutch names. The design of the following notes is to sup- 
ply this desideratum, and the design of another publication, 
if I should think proper to make it, will be to present an 
amusing view of the singularly slow progress and strange 
peculiarities of the ancient city ; when, for instance, the le- 
gislative, executive and judicial power was vested in the 
governor and his council, under the supreme law of the 
land, the will of the Dutch West India com.pany department 
at Amsterdam ; when de Heer Officter^ or Hoofd-Sckoid, t 
acted as the Fiscael or Procureur-general ; | when he or 

* For fear of impairing the authenticity of the original, I bare copied it 
as it was, notwithstanding the badness of its perspective, 
t High Sheriff. t Attorney General. 



8 

the pro's OS t-mar shall, the gaoler, conducted offenders to 
tiie gaol, the whipping- post, the wooden-horse, the gal- 
lows, or to the transport ship, if the criminal had been 
gailty of crimen lesa majestatis ; or of a libel merely 
oei the good Burgomasters^ then only to a stake, with 
a bridle in his mouth, rods under his arm, and an ap- 
propriate label on his breast ; when the wets-meesters took 
charge of fatherless children alid widows ;* when the Roy- 
meesters viewed the city fences and regulated them ; 
when the overseers of the city fire-engine inspected 
all reed and straw roofs and wooden chimnejs ; when 
the official duties of the court-messenger were to summon 
parties to court, await the orders of the governor and 
coancil, read in church on Sunday, sing with the school, 
assist in burying the dead, and attend in tolling the bell ; 
when '' the first commissary of marriage affairs'* determin- 
ed all matrimonial controversies; when the city school- 
master was, ex-officio, clerk, chorister and consoler of the 
sick f when the miller could receive no grain unless ac- 
companied by a certificate of its inspection by " the comp- 
troller of the revenues of the company's wind mill;" when 
the citizens were divided into great and small, agreeably to 
the destinction of Groot BurgerrecJit and Klein Burgerrecht ^] 
when merchants, traders and shop-keepers were obliged not 
only to pay a duty for the privilege of becoming small 
citizens (klein burgers.) but also to pay a recognition duty, a 
doty to the public wharf, a duty to the overseer of the weigh- 



» A wees-hiiys or orphan-house is mentioned — hnt it was probably the 
house of the wees-meesters, for the city, according to the records of the 
times, was too poor to undertake *' so grand an enterprise" as to erect a 
house like that in Amsterdam 

t Great citizenship and small citizenship. 



scales, a duty to the i^uhMcpack huys^* and a duty to the eyck 
meester^ for marking their weights and nneasures agreeably 
to the true Amsterdam standard ; when the amusenients and 
customs of the citizens consisted principally in dancing the 
hipsey-saw, shuffle-shuffle, or a simple reel ; playing with 
cards, nine-pins, balls and trick-track ; plucking the goose ; 
firing guns, beating the drum, and planting May-trees on 
New- Year's and May-Day; sometimes planting the May-pole, 
surrounded with ragged stockings, before the door of the 
bridegroom ; sailing to Nut Island,! Pavonia,§ or " Ereu- 
kelen ;" promenading the pleasure grounds of the city, 
fishing by day and night, rambhng to the commonsjl for nuts 
and strawberries; walking and riding in partiesof pleasure to 
the Ladies' Valley ,11 Bestevaars kreupelbosch^^] theKolck,1:| 
the Bouwery, Corlear's Hook, Sapokanikan,§§ Bloemend' 
Dal, Nieuw Harlaem, Spyt den Duyvel Kill, or Vreeden- 
dal.** But these and similar pecuharities of the ancient 
city, may hereafter become topics for the amusement of a 
leisure hour. I may then also open to view, more fully 
than f design to do by the following notes, the police eco- 
nomy and condition of the city, and describe the novel 
transactions that took place from the time the council of 
war of the conquerors transferred its sessions from the fleet 
to the fort, and until its re-delivery to the English. Assuming 
the authority of a supreme military trbunal, the former first 
remodelled the government over their conquest, in con- 
formity to the ancient customs of the city and the exigency 
of the epoch. Accordingly they re-established the order of 

* Store-house, 
i Weigh-master. 

X Governors Island. § New-Jersey. 
Ij Now the park of the city. 

H See page 36. tt Grand-father's Underwood. U Sec page 3T. 

§§ Greenwich. 

*• In West-Chester, north of Harlaem. 
2 



10 

schout, burgomasters and schepens ; but retained the office 
of mayor, adding to it that of auditor of the military council, 
and appointed Jacobus Van de Water. They commissioned 
AnthonioColve,who had been a captain in the service of the 
Republic, as Governor under the provisional sanction of 
the States-general and the Prince of Orange. They appoin- 
ed Cornells Steenwyck as his counsellor of state, and Nicho- 
las Bayard as secretary of New Netherlands,* and as geheim 
schryver^ or recorder of secrets ; ac vendii meester, or auc- 
tioneer for the city, and as book-keeper and receiver-gene- 
ral of the revenues. Relieved from the burthen of civil 
affairs, except on important occasions of a joint conference 
with the governor and council, or the burgomasters and 
schepens, the military triounal was left at leisure to consult 
measures for the perm.aneni; security of the city. Then a 
code of sanguinary military law was deemed necessary ; 
the strictest discipline enforced not only in garrison but 
among the city militia r tho mayor, at the head of the lat- 
ter, held his daily rarade3 before the City Hall ; each eve- 
ning he received from, the principal guard, {hoofd wagt) of 
the fort, t'je keys, and, accompanied by a Serjeant and six 
armed soluierc, locked the c'ty gates, stationed for duty the 
Burger- wagt \ and ni;5ht watches, opened the gates at day- 
light, and in either case returned the keys to the commanding 
officer at the fort. In this interval no person could go upon 
the •' ramparts, builwarks, rondeels or batteries of the city,'' 
on pain of corporal punishment, but if any person '* with- 
out any distinction,'' dared to enter or leave the city except 
through the city gate, death was the penalty. At the fort 
the soldiers were daily paraded and exercised, the guard 

* Now state of New York. 
tCitizen on guard. 



11 

mounted the ramparts upon duty, the sentinels were station- 
ed at the gates, the reveille was played each morning at day- 
break, the tap-toe beaten each evening at nine o'clock, in 
unison with the city bell, and the daily discharges of musket- 
ry and occasional roar of artillery, were heard in echoes at 
Flatten Barrack, Golden and Potbakers' Hills, or in rever- 
beration along the surrounding shores and forests. 

Every day a corporal's guard was on duty from each com- 
pany in garrison,* when the muskets were examined by the 
Serjeants and corporals. The guard was on duty in the 
afternoon at one o'clock, and on Sunday at twelve, during 
which time the gates were shut. A lieutenant or ensign 
alternately remained on guard in the fort, and reported to 
the governor the transactions of the day. The gates were 
opened at day-light, and locked in the evening before 
it was dark. When the tap-toe was beaten, at nine o'clock, 
all the soldiers and sailors were allowed to go to sleep — 
" without making any noise.'' The corporals changed their 
sentinels at night each half hour. The chief-round (hoofd- 
rond) went before midnight and received the parole^ but 
at least one adelborst\ previously made the round ; and 
after the chief-round, the adelborsten, from time to time, went 
the rounds. In like manner on Sundays, during the sermon^ 
they went the rounds in the forenoon and afternoon, and 
visited the walls. Their duty was to see that the soldiers 
kept their barracks and dwellings clean, and never to allow 
any dirt or water to be thrown in the fort. The corporals 
changed their sentinels in the day time as circumstances 
required-T-their duty was to see that the muskets were 
cleaned and well charged, to pay attention to all sorts of 
ammunition, to examine the bandeliers, (cartridge-boxes,) 
to be continually on the alert to take care that their men 

* The major of the garrison, was ensign Jan Sol. 
t A grade only above a commou soldier. 



12 

remained in or Dear the guard-house, to permit not more 
than three or four to go at once to dine, to prevent the 
introduction into the guard-house of any strong Hquor, to 
instruct and continp.ally exercise the soldiers, inculcate 
strict discipline, and tinally, principally to pay attention 
" that neither Dutch nor Englishmen should enter the gates 
of the fort without permission, the magistrates of the city 
only excepted, much less that any person whatsoever 
should walk on the batteries.'*'^ 

In consequence of the great disorders which had arisen 
in the fort among the soldiers, a code of military law con- 
taining nineteen articles was promulgated by the governor, 
and the corporals were bound to read aloud these " orders" 
every time they were on guard, " that no one might in future 
presume to pretend his ignorance." By this code they 
were liable to be punished for the first crime of blasphemy, 
with confinement on bread and water three days ; for a 
second offence, the offender's tongue " should be perfo- 
rated with a hot iron," and he banished the province. 
Death was decreed for mutiny, or for leaving his corps de 
<rarde without permission from his corporal, or remaining 
at ni^ht out the fort without permission of his captain, for 
challenging to fight, for disobedience to the commands of 
his superior, or to " the command communicated with the 
beating of the drum ;" or if a soldier should " oppose him- 
self to his officer or commander," or in general neglect his 
duty when on guard or service, or if he should leave his 
post, or the sentinel be found sleeping when on duty, " he 
should lose his life without any mercy ;" for wounding 
another so that blood followed he shouid lose his hand, or 
if in any fight or strife he cried to his comrade to assist him, 
he " should be hung and strangled." This punishment 
should also be inflicted for going out or coming into the 
fort except through the ordinary gate. Whoever became 



13 

intoxicated during guard was cashiered and banished the 
company. He who did not appear on parade, should 
have his guard located to another, be placed on the wooden 
horse^ and still be compelled to go on guard. 

The commissary distributed to each man per week 3^ 
lbs. beef, and 2 lbs. pork; or if beef only was distributed, the 
ration (rantsoen) was 7 lbs. beef or 4 pork ; 7 lbs. bread ; 
i lb. butter or the value of 2 st. Holland value. For 7 
men per week ^ vat of small beer. For each man per 
month li pints peas; and for every man ^ schepel salt 
every three months. The Serjeant and gunners (constopels) 
received the ration for 1^ man, the corporals for !^ man. 

Before the date of the governor's commission, one of 
the first acts of the military tribunal was to invite the citi- 
zens to assemble and appoint a committee of six to confer 
at the City Hall with the commanders and military council. 
Accordingly, on the loth August, these six deputies held 
the conference, and received a request to call a meeting of 
the citizens to nominate a list of six persons for burgomas- 
ters, and fifteen for schepens, ** of the best and most respect- 
able citizens, of the reformed christian religion only." 

The citizens (IGth August) nominated by a majority of 
votes : For burgomasters, Cornelis Steenwyck, Conieiis 
Van Ruyven; Johannis Van Brugh,t Marten Cregier. Jo- 
hannis de Peyster,t and Nicholas Bayard. For schepent 
Jeronimus Ebbingh,*| Willam Beeckman,| Egidius Luyck, 
Jacob Kip,t Gelyn Verplanck,J Lourans Van de Spie£jel,t 
Balthazaer Bayard, Francois Rombouts, Stephen Van 
Cortlant, Adolph Pietersen, Reynier Willemsen, Peter 

* Whose wife, then here, was Johanna de Laet, daughter of the deceased 
Johannis de Laet, one of the first directors of the West India companv, and 
author of the History of that company, viz : " Historic, &c. West-Indische 
Companie: Tot Leyden, 1644;" and the History of the West Indies, 
("Nieuw Wereld, 8jc.") Amsterdam, 1625, 



14 

Jacobsen, Jan Vigne, Pieter Stoutenburg, and Coenract 
Ten Eyck. 

Those marked t were appointed burgomasters, and Egi- 
dius Luyck the third burgomaster. Those marked X were 
elected schepens, and Anthony De Mill, sheriff, and took 
an oath of allegiance " to the high and mighty lords the 
States-general of the United Netherlands and his high- 
ness the lord prince of Orange," to obey their magistrates, 
who were or might be appointed, administer equal justice to 
parlies, promote the welfare of the city, " defend and pro- 
tect in every part the sincere and true Christian reli- 
gion, in conformity to the Synod of Dordrecht, as instructed 
in the churches of Netherland." 

A proclamation was then issued, (August 18,) restoring 
the form of the government of the city to its ancient char- 
acter of sheriff, burgomasters, and schepens, as practised 
" in all the cities of our Fatherland ;" and the officers now 
commissioned and proclaimed were directed in addition to 
the duties indicated by their oath, to govern the inhabitants, 
citizens and strangers, " in conformity to the laws and 
statutes of our Fatherland." 

The same day a sequestration was ordered, by the mili- 
tary council, of the property belonging to England, France, 
or their subjects. 

The commission for Governor bore date the 17th Sep- 
tember. After he and his council were left in the full 
exercise of supreme legislative, executive and judicial 
authority, they issued the following instructions. 

Instructions for Jacobus Van de Water, as Mayor and Auditor 
of the city of Kew-Orange» 
1 st. The mayor shall take good care that, in the morn- 
ing, the gates arc opened with sun-rise, and locked again 
in the evening at sun-set — for which purpose he shall go to 



15 

the principal guard, (the hoofd wagt,) and there address 
himself to the commanding officer, and demand, to conduct 
him thither, at least a seijeant with six soldiers (schutters,) 
all armed with guns — with these he shall proceed to the 
fort to fetch the keys, and return these again there, as soon 
as the gates are opened or shut. There he shall receive the 
watch-word (parol) from the governor, or from the officer 
commanding in his absence ; when he shall again return to 
the Citi/ Hall,, and deliver the received orders to the Serjeant 
of the guard, to be further notified where it ought to be. 

2. The mayor shall be present at all military tribunals, 
and have his vote in his turn, next the youngest ensign. 

3. The mayor may every night make the round, give 
the watch-word to the corporal, visit the guards, and if 
there are some absent, make the next day his report to the 
governor. 

3. As auditor, he shall act in the military council as 
secretary, and take care that a correct register is kept of 
all the transactions. This book Notules shall remain 
under the care of the auditor — and deliver no copy of it, 
except upon special orders. 

Done at « Fort WILLEM HENDRICK." 

12 /«n. 1674. 

Frovisional instructions for the Sheriff, Burgomasters and 
Schepens, of the city of New-Orange. 

1. The sheriff and magistrates shall, each in their qua- 
lity, take proper care, that the reformed Christian religion, 
in conformity to the synod of Dordrecht, is maintained — 
without permitting that any thing contrary to it shall be 
attempted by any other sect. 

2. The sheriff shall be present at all meetings, and then 
preside, except that his honour the governor, or any other 
person commissioned by him, was present, who in such 



16 

case shall preside, when the sheriff shall follow in order the 
youngest burgomaster. But whenever the sheriff is acting 
in behalf of justice, or in any other manner as plaintiff, 
then in such case he shall, after having made his conclu- 
sion, rise from his seat, and absent himself from the bench 
during the decision. 

3. All cases relative to the police, security, and peace 
of the inhabitants — so too of justice between man and man, 
shall be determined by definitive sentences by the schout, 
burgomasters and schepens, to the amount of fifty beavers 
and below it — but in all cases exceeding that sum, all per- 
sons are free to appeal to the governor-general and council 
here. 

4. All criminal delicts, committed here within this city 
and its jurisdiction, shall be judged by the aforesaid sheriff, 
burgomasters and schepens, who shall have power to sen- 
tence and judge even punishment of death — provided that 
all judgments and corporal punishments shall not be exe- 
cuted before these are approved by the governor-general 
and his council, this approbation being demanded and 
obtained. 

5. The meetings shall be convocated by the president 
burgomaster, which he shall communicate the day before to 
captain Willem Knyff — who by this is provisionally au- 
thorized and qualified to be present at the meetings, and 
preside in them in the name and in the behalf of the go- 
vernor, and so to the sheriff, burgomasters and schepens. 

6. All proposals shall be made by the first burgomaster, 
which proposal being made, then shall upon it, the first 
advice be given by him who presides in the name of the 
governor — and so of course by the remaining magistrates 
each in his rank ; and after the collection of votes, it shall 
by the majority be concluded. But if it happen that 
the votes are equal, then the president may conclude with 



17 

his vote, in which case those of the contrary opinion, or the 
minority, may have their opinion placed on the protocol; 
but may not divulge it in public, under the penalty of 
an arbitrary correction. 

7. The burgomasters shaH change their rank each half 
year, when the oldest shall be first president, and he who 
follows him the next — but for this year the change shall be 
every fourth month, because this year three burgomasters 
have been appointed. 

S» The sheriff, burgomasters and schepens shall hold 
their sessions as often as it may be required, provided they 
determine on fixed days. 

9. The sheriff, burgomasters and schepens are autho- 
rized to resolve for the benefit, tranquillity, and peace of the 
inhabitants of their district, and publish and fix, with the 
approbation of the governor, any statutes, ordinances and 
placards : provided that they are not contrary, but, as far 
as it may be possible, agreeing with the laws and statutes 
of our Fatherland. 

10. The said sheriff, burgomasters and schepens, shall 
be obliged to a rigid observance of all the placards and 
ordinances which are commanded and published by su- 
preme authority, and see that these are executed, and not 
to permit that any act to the contrary is performed, but 
that the contraveners are prosecuted in conformity to its 
contents ; and that, further, all such orders shall be 
promptly executed, which shall be conveyed to them by 
the governor-general from time to time. 

11. The sheriff, burgomasters and schepens, shall be 
further obliged to acknowledge their high and mighty lords 
the States-general of the United Netherlands, and his 
serene highness the lord prince of Orange, as their supreme 
sovereign, and to maintain their high jurisdiction, rights 
and domains in this country. 

3 



18 

12. The election of all inferior officers and ministers 
for the service of the aforesaid sheriff, burgomasters and 
schepens — the secretary's office only excepted, shall be 
elected and confirmed by themselves. 

13. The sheriff shall carry into execution all the sen- 
tences of burgomasters and schepens viithout releasing 
any individual except with advice of the Court — and take 
particularly good care that the resort subjected to him, 
be thoroughly cleansed from all villainies, brothels and 
similar impurities. 

14. The sheriff shall enjoy all the fines during the time 
of his service, provided that these shall not exceed the 
sum of twelve hundred gilders sewants value, annually — 
which sum having received, he shall of all the other fines 
receive the just half, provided that he shall neither direct- 
ly nor indirectly enter into a compromise with any delin- 
quent, but leave this to the judicature of the magistrates. 

15. The sheriff, burgomasters and schepens aforesaid, 
shall on the 11th day of the month of August, being eight 
days before the day of election of the new magistrates, call 
a meeting, and in the presence of a committee chosen for 
that purpose by the governor-general, nominate a double 
number of the best qualified, honest and respectable inhabi- 
tants, and only such as are of the reformed christian reli- 
gion, or who are at least favourable to it, and well affec- 
tionate, for sheriff, burgomasters and schepens aforesaid, 
which nomination that same day shall be sealed and deliver- 
ed, from which then the election shall be made on the 17th 
of the month of August, with the continuation of some of 
the old magistrates, if it was judged proper or necessary. 

Done in Fort Willem Hendrick, 15 Jan. 1674, 
By order of the governor general of Netherland. 

(Was signed,) N. Bayard, Secretary, 



19 

In August, 1674, the re-election of city officers took 
place, "agreeably to custom, and the specific instructions 
of the governor." The old sheriif, burgomasters and 
schepens, accordingly met at the City Hall, the place of their 
sessions, and nominated a double list of " the most respec- 
table and wealthiest inhabitants," viz : 

For Burgomasters — * Willem Beeckman, Oloff Steven- 
sen Cortland. 

For Schepens — * Stephanus Van Cortland, * Ffrancois 
Rombouts, Jan Vigne, Peter Jacobsen Marius, * Christo- 
pher Hoogland, Gerret Van Tricht. 

At the close of the preceding year, the expenses incur- 
red in repairing the fortifications and providing for the pub- 
lic defence, amounted to 11,000 gilders. 

In the begining of the next year, (or in Feb. 1G74,) the 
Burgomasters and Schepens of the city, notified the gover- 
nor by a petition, that having become greatly indebted by 
these " excessive expenses," and being daily vexed by some 
of their creditors to make payment, they solicited that 
some expedient might be invented from which these incur- 
red expenses, with others yet to be made to finish the fortifi- 
cations — might be liquidated. — Having taking it in serious 
consideration, the governor deemed that, for the present 
time, no remedy more prompt, more efficacious and equita- 
ble could be applied or discovered, than that this money 
should be obtained by a taxation of the wealthiest inhabi 
tants, " so as often in similar occurrences had been put in 
practice in our Fatherland,*' wherefore he deemed it ne- 
cessary to command " that by a calculation, a tax be levied 
on the property of this state without exception — from all 
the inhabitants of this city New-Orange — those only except- 
ed whose estates are calculated not to exceed the sum of one 

These marked * were elected, and the others were J. Van Brug, old Bur. 
gomastcr, Jacob Kip, presiding Schepen— and Gelyn Verplanck, Schepn. 



20 



thowsand gilders, " seewants value ;'' and that the aforesaid 
tax might be levied in the most reasonable and less oppres- 
sive manner, it vi^as resolved that it should be levied and 
collected by six impartial men, viz: two in behalf of the 
government, two from the magistrates, and two from the 
community in this city ; and for this end the governor ap- 
pointed and qualified in behalf of the supreme sovereign, 
the member of council, Cornelis Steenwyck, with the 
secretar)', N. Bayard : from the community, Cornelis Van 
Ruyven and Oloif Stevenseu Van Cortlant, who, with the 
committee of the magistrates to be appointed by them, were 
authorized to execute the aforesaid taxation, and render to 
him a written report. 

The commissioners immediately entered upon the dis- 
chan^e of their duty, assessed the estates and made their 
report, from which, and from the corrections made after- 
wards in their estimate, the following list will exhibit names 
of the " most wealthy inhabitants," and consequently the 
value of this city one hundred and fifty-two years ago. 



Adolph Peterson, (I) estate valu- 
ed at (a-ilders Holland v^lue,; 
1000 
Andria? Jochems, 300 

Albert B'jsch, 500 

Ahram V arraar, 300 

Ali^-d Actiiony, (2) 1000 

Abr..hRm Jausen, Carpenter, 600 
AnihoDy Juns^n Van Sale, 1000 
Adrian Viiiociit, 1000 

Abvl Harder broeck, 1000 

Abi.bam Verplanck, 300 

Assei- Lecvy, 2600 

Abrarn Lubbersen, 300 

Anthony De, 1000 



Anna Van Borssum, 2000 

Barent Coersen, 3500 

Balthasar Bayard, (Sj 1 500 

Boele Roelofsen, 600 

Barnadus Hasfalt, 300 

Bay Croe Svelt, 1000 

Baithasar de Haerts House, 2000 
Claes Lock, 600 

Carsten Leursen, 5000 

Cornelis Steenwycb, (4) 50,000 
Cornelis Van Puyven (5) 18000 
Cornelis Janse van Hooren, 500 
Claes Bordingth, ir.UO 

Coenraet Ten Eyck, (6) 5000 
Christopher Hoogland, (7) 5000 



(1) ^;ec pages 13, 14. (2) Notary Public. (3) See pag-s 13, 14. 
(4) Captain of infantry, counsellor of state, &c. &c- see pages 13, 14. 



(5) 



13, 14. 



(6) Ilc resided at (Toenties slip, and he and his wife Jane gave name 
to thih sJip, which origioilly was " Coen & Antyes" slip. His tannery 
was on mire lane, iee page. (7) Schepen; page 19' 



21 



Cornells Chopper, 

Corel Van Brugg^es'shouses, 1000 

Cornells Van Borssum, 

David Wessels, 

Comeiis Direksen, from 
westveen, 

Cornells Barentse Vander 
Cuyll, 

Dirck Smet, 

David Jochems, 

Daniel Hendricks, 

Dirck Van Cleef, 

Dirck VViggerse, 

Dlr ;k Sieken, 

Dirck Claesse, Potter, 

Aeg-idius Luyk, (8) 

Egbert Wouterse, 

Evert Pieterse, 

Evert Wesselse Kuyper, 

Evert Duyckingh, 

Ephraim Harmans, (9) 

Elisabeth Drlseus, 

Elisabeth Bedloo, 

Ffrancois Rombouts? (10) 

Ffredrick Phihpse, 

Ffredrick Arentse, turner, 

Ffredrick Gisberts, 

Guillane Verplanck, (11) 

Guiliam de Honioud, 

Gapriel Minville, (11) 

Gerret Gullevever, 

Mary Loockermans, 

Harmanus Burger, & Co. 

Hendrick Kip, sen. 

Hendrick Bosch, 

Hendrick Wessels Smit 

Hendrick Gillesse, Shoem- 
aker, 



5000 


Hendrick Willemse Backer 2000 


,1000 


Hermanus Van Borsum. 


600 


8000 


Hans Kierstede, 


200O 


800 


Hendrick Van Dyke, 


300 




Hartman Wessels, 


300 


1200 


Harmen Smecmar, 


300 




Henry Bresier, 


300 


400 


Johnannes Van Brugh, (12) 




2000 




1400 


1000 


Johnnis de Peyster, (13) 


15000 


500 


Jeronlmus Ebblngh, (14) 


30000 


1500 


Jacob Kip, (15) 


4000 


800 


Isaacq Van Vlecq, 


1500 


2000 


Jan Mleynder se Karman, 


300 


700 


Isack de Foreest, 


1500 


5000 


Junan Blanck, 


1600 


400 


Jacob de Naers, 


5000 


2000 


Jan Hendrick Van Bommel, 


300 




1500, 


1600 


Jacob Leumen, 


300 


1000 


Jeremias Jansen Hag-enaer, 400 


2000 


Jacobus Vande Water, (16) 


1000 




2500 


5000 


Jan Dirckse Meyer, 


600 


80000 


Isacq Van Tricht, in his bro- 


400 


thers house, 


2000 


400 


Jacob Abrahamse, Shoema- 


5000 


ker, 


2500 


400 


Jan Van Bree Steede, 


500 


10000 


Jonas Bartels, 


3000 


500 


Jan Herberdingh, 


2000 


2000 


Jacob Teuniss Key, 


8000 


400 


Jan Spiegelaer, 


500 


300 


Jan Jansen, Carpenter, 


300 


400 


John Lawrence, (17) 


400CO 


1200 


James Matheus, 


1000 




Jan Reay, Pipe-maker, 


30<> 


300 


Jan Coely Smet, 


1200 




Jan Schakerley, 


1400 



(8) See pages 13, 14. He was rector of the latin school. 

(9) Secretary to the sessions of the Schout Burgomaster and Schepens 

(10) Seepages 13, 14. Schepen page 19. 

(11) Schepen, see pages 19, 13,' 14. He and Gabriel Minveille 
and Oloft Stevenson Van Cortlandt, were commissioners to liquidate 
the demands against the estate of the ci-devant Governor Loveictce. 

(12) pages 13 14, 19. Burgomaster. (13) do. (14) Schepen see pages 

(15) Presiding Schepen, pages 13, 14, 19. 

( 1 6) May or and " Auditeur," (17) iVIerchant. 



CiGy 



Jan Joosten, Barquicr, 2500 
Jacob Levslaer, (18) 15000 

JanViffne, (19) 1000 

Jacob Varrevanger, 8000 

Laurens Jan sen Smet, 300 

Luycas Andries, Barquicr, 1500 
Laurens Van de Spiegel, 6000 
Lanimert Huybertse IVIoll, 300 
Laurens Hoist, 300 

Luvckes Tienlioven, 600 

Marten Kregier, sen. (20) 2000 
Marten Jan sen IMeyer, 500 

Matheys do I faert, 12000 

JSicholas de Meyer, 60000 

Nicholas Bayard, ^21; 1000 

Nicholas du'Fuy, 600 

Nicolas Jaasen Backer, 700 

Olof Stevensen Van Cortland, 

(22; 45000 

Peter Jacobs Marius, 5000 



Peter Nys, 500 

Paulus Bichard, 5000 

Peter de Riemcr, 800 

Paulus Turcq, 300 

Pieter Van de Water, 400 

Picter Jansen Mesier, 300 

Philip Johns, 600 
Reynier Willemse, (23) 

Backer, 5000 
Stephanus Van Cortland, 

C24; 5000 

Simon Jjintz Romeyn, 1200 

Sibout Claess, 500 

S'ouwert Olp heresse, 600 

Thomas Leurs, 6000 
Thomas Louwerss, Backer, 

1000 

Wilhelm Beeckman, (25; 3000 

Wander Wessels, 600 
Willem Van der Schueven, 300 



This taxation was made by the committee to their best 
knowledge of the capital which the inhabitants possessed. 

From this list it appears that 134 estates were taxed, that the 
aggregate amount was about £95,000, a sum much less than that 
which many of the descendants of those " wealthy inhabhants" 
would at the present day be willing to acknowledge as the fair va- 
luation of their individual property. 

Previously to an explanation of the references denoted by 
letters and figures in the View, I will notice the currency and 
measures which are referred to in these notes, viz: seawant, 
beavers, gilders and stivers; a last and a schepel. Cash 
was so scarce in the ancient city, that even the ministers 
of the Gospel, and the West India company's officers and ser- 
vants, were paid in seawant or beavers. In 16G0, ministers 



(18) After the revolution in England in 1688, he seized the fort, as- 
sumed the government, over the province of New-York, was tried 
and condemed for pretended treason, and executed near the present 
gaol of the city. (19) Pages 13, 14, 19. (20) Pages 13, 14, 19. 

(21 ) Held a monoply of officers, see page. (22) Burgomester, page 19. 

(23) See page 22b. (24) Schepen, page 31* 

(25) Burgomaster, page 19 see page 13, 14. 



23 

were to be paid ia beavers, at £1 3 4 a piece, •«5Uiid* as these 
Holland at £l 10. In 1663, the officers and servants were 
paid in beavers at £1 0. Seawant, or seawan, was the name 
of Indian money- It was called also wampum (wampum peague 
or peague.) It consisted of beads formed of the shells of the 
quahaug^ a shell fish formerly abounding on our coasts, but 
ately of less general occurrence. It was of two colours, the 
black being held of twice the value of the white. Indeed, this 
last was formed of another shell fish, called metau hock or peri- 
winkle, and was more strictly the wampum, while the black was 
called suckau hock. Their current value, was six beads of the 
white, or three of the black, for an English penny. Seawant 
was also taken from the common oyster shelly then bored and 
strung. 

The first accounts of the English dealing in this currency, are 
in 1627. In 1641, an ordinance in council in this city, passed 
by governor Kieft, recited that a vast deal of bad seawant, 
** nasty rough things imported from other places," was in 
circulation, while the " good splendid seawant, usually called 
Manhattan's seawant, was out of sight, or exported, which must 
cause the ruin of the country !" Therefore all coarse seawant, 
well stringed, should pass at six for one stuyver only, but the 
well polished at four for a stuyver, and whoever offered or 
received the same at a different price, should forfeit the same 
and ten gilders to the poor. 

In 1657, this currency was reduced foom six to eight for a 
stuyver. A stuyver was two pence, and a gilder 3s. 4d. 

Among the measures, were a last, which contained 108 sche- 
pels, or 81| bushels, and a schepel, | of a bushel. 

VIEW. — A. The vessels lying on the North river side of the 
Capsey, (Jig. 1 ) were Fort Orangiensche oft Albanishe Jachten : 
Fort Orange or Albany sloops. In the East river, the " Surrinam," 
44 gun ship, is designed to be represented, besides some smaller 
Tessels, as the " Snaeuw, and the City Leghter.^' The Surrinam, 
under immediate command of Governor Colve, and the "Zee 
Hond" (Sea-dog,) commanded by Commodore Evertsen, were 



fvlcL 



24 

allowed by the "noble commanders of the military tribunal" to 
remain during the year, and until further provision should be 
made for the protection of the city. They were here the next 
year, for in March, l674, it was adjudged that as the vessels in 
the harbor {fig. 3) near the weigh-scales (see H) might, on the 
arrival of an enemy, lay too much in the way, and hinder the 
defence, they should be secured ; and therefore all the " skip- 
pers, barquiers and boatsmen in the city," were commanded 
to lay their vessels at anchor in deep water before the city, and 
on the arrival of more than one ship to secure them in the rear 
of the ship Surrinam, near the Rondeel, (see R. 1.) before the 
residence of the widow Loockerman's, under the penalty that all 
those vessels laying in the harbor at such a time, should be burnt 
without discrimination. 

Some of the public and private vessels that entered and de- 
parted this port during the Dutch dynasty, were — in the time of 
Van Twiller, the yacht, the Hoop, conquered by him in 1632, 
the ship Soutberg, or Salt Mountain, in which he returned from 
Holland in l633, the yachten, or sloops Prince William, Am- 
sterdam, Wesel, and Peace. The most conspicuous vessels in 
the period of Keift's government, were the ship Harring, in 
which he arrived, March 28, 1638, and the " Angel Gabriel/^ 
which he freighted. 

During the protracted government of Stuyvesant, who began 
his administration on his arrival with three ships, May 11, 1647, 
and ended it on the surrender, September 6, l664, the public ships, 
and private commercial vessels, became comparatively nume- 
rous. The harbor was now visited by " the arms of Amsterdam," 
the " Arms of Renselaerwyck," the " Arms of Stuyvesant," the 
"King David," the "Gideon," the "Gilded Eagle," "Queen 
Esther," the "Rose Tree," "St. Jacob," "King Solomon," the 
"' Fox," the " Pear Tree," " Do Trow," " Oak Tree," the " Great 
Christopher," tlie " Gilded Otter," " Crowned Sea Bears," and 
the " Spotted Cow." 

Fig. 1. The Capsey or dividing point between the North and 

* See View. 



26 

East rivers. This jDoint terminated at a very short distance south 
of State street, which was formerly called Capsey street, and was 
the ancient boundary of the shore. The front row of buildings 
from fig. 1 to S, were upon this street, and extended to White 
Hall street. The next row near the fort, formed Pearl street, 
which then extended only to White Hall street. Between Pearl 
street and the fort, stood the large wooden-horse ten or twelve 
feet high, with an edged back, on which the culprit was seated- 
and his legs fastened with a chain to an iron stirrup, and sometimes 
a weight was fastened to the foot. The horse is invisible on the 
present prospect, as well as the tavern distinguished as " the sign 
of the Wooden Horse." 

B. Vlagg-Spil daer de vlag wordt opgehaelt ah er comen 
Scheepen in dese Haven, the flag-staff whereon the flag was hoist- 
ed upon the arrival of vessels into the harbor. 

C. I^ort Amsterdam, genaamt James-Fort hy de EngelscJa 
Fort Amsterdam, otherwise called James-Fort by the English. 
The name officially giv^en to the fort in 1 673, was "fort Willem 
Hendrick." It was first erected and finished in l635, by Gov* 
Van Twiller, neglected by Governor Kieft, repaired and sur- 
rounded by a stone wall by Governor Stuyvesant, and demolish- 
ed, and the ground levelled m 1790 and '91. It was situated di- 
rectly south of the Bowling green, on high ground, was in shape 
of a regular square, with four bastions, had two gates, and 
mounted forty-two cannon. 

D. Gevangen Huys. The prison-house or gaol. It was of 
stone and built by Governor Kieft. 

E. Gereformeerde Kerck. The reformed Dutch Church 
was erected within the fort, by Governor Kieft, in 1642. It 
was of stone, and covered with oak shingles, which exposed to 
the weather, soon resembled slate. The motives that induced 
Governor Kieft to become the founder of the first church in this 
city, may be best related in the words of captain David Pietersz 
de Vriez " artillery meester van 't noorder Quartier," who per- 
formed three voyages to New Netherlands, associated with Kil- 
liaen Van Rensalaer and others, in 1630 to colonize this region 
attempted a colony at the Hore-Kill on the Delaware, in the time? 

4 



26 

of Van Twiller, and another on " Staaten Eylandt," which he 
sustained till the troubles with the Indians in the latter time of 
Kieft, drove him to abandon the country. De Vriez observes : 
"As I was every day with Commander Kieft, dining generally 
at his house when I happened to be at the fort, he told me one 
day that he had now made a fine tavern* huilt with stone, for the 
English, by whom, as they passed continually with their vessels 
from New England to Virginia, he had suffered much, and who 
now might take lodgings there. I told him this was very good 
for travellers, but that we wanted very badly for our people a 
church. It was a shame that when the English passed, they 
should see nothing but a mean ham, in which we performed our 
worship ; on the contrary, the first thing that they in New 
England did, when they had built fine dwellings, was to erect a 
fine church :t we ought to do the same, it being supposed that 
the West India Company were very zealous in protecting the 
reformed church (Calvinist) against the Spanish tyranny, 
that we had good materials for it, fine oak wood, fine building 
stone, good lime made of oyster shells, being better than our 
lime in Holland. Kieft asked me then who would like to attend 
to this building? I replied the lovers of the reformed religion, 
as certainly some of them could be found. He told me that he 
supposed I myself was one of them, as I made the propositions 
and he supposed I would contribute a hundred guilders ! I re- 
plied that I agreed to do so, and that as he was Governor, he 
should be the first. We then elected Jochem Pietersz Kuyter, 
who having a set of good hands, would soon procure good tim- 
ber, he being also a devout Calvinist. We elected also Jan 
Claesz Damen, because he lived near the fort, and thus we four 

* This was the " Stadt-herherg,'''' or City Tavern, afterwards the 
** Stadt huys,'''' or City Hall, of which see K on the view, and page 31-3. 

t De Vriez related the truth, for according to" New England's First 
Fruits," printed in London, 1643, (page 21,) there were in New 
England in 1 642, 50 towns and villages, 30 or 40 churches, and a college 
founded by Mr. Harvard, " a Godly gentleman, and a lover of learning, 
then livings" 



27 



" Kerk meesters" formed the first consistory to superintend the 
building of the church. 1 he Governor should furnish a few 
thousand guilders of the company's money, and would try to 
raise the remainder by subscription. The church should be 
built in the fort, where it would be free from hn depredations of 
the Indians. The building was soon started of stone, and was 
covered by English carpenters with slate, split of oakwood," 
(that is, with oak shingles which, by rain and wind soon became 
blue, and resembled slate.) 

The contract for the erection of this church is upon record. 
It was made in May, 1642, before the secretary of the New- 
Netherlands, between " William Kieft, church-warden, at the 
request of his brethren, the church-wardens of the church in 
New-Netherland, and John Ogden of Stanford, and Richard 
Ogden, who contracted to build the church of rock-stone, 72 
feet long, 62 broad, and 16 feet high above the soil, for 2500 
gilders (£416 13 4) " in beaver, cash or merchandize, to wit, 
if the church-wardens are satisfied with the work, so that, in 
their judgment, the 2500 gilders shall have been earned — then 
said church-wardens will reward them with one hundred gilders 
(£16 13 4) more," in the mean time assist them whenever it is 
in their power, and allow them the use, for a month or six 
weeks, of the Company's boat, to facilitate the carrying of the 
stone thither. 

The church was not completely finished until the first year of 
governor Stuyvesant's administration. In July, 1647, he and 
two others were appointed kerk meesters, (church-wardens,) 
to superintend the work, and complete it the ensuing winter. 

The town bell was removed to this church. Besides 
the ofiice of calling the devout to meeting, and announc- 
ing the hour of retirement at night, the bell was appro- 
priated for various singular uses. In October, 1638, a female, 
for slandering the Rev. E. Bogardus, was condemned to appear at 
fort Amsterdam, and before the governor and council, ** to de- 
clare in public, at the sounding of the bell, that she knew the 
minister was an honest and pious man, and that she lied falsely." 



28 

In 1639, all mechanics and labourers in the service of the 
Com pun}' commenced and left work at the ringing of the bell, 
and for every neglect forfeited double the amount of their 
wages, to the use of the attorney-general. 

In 1647, all tavern keepers were prohibited, by the placards 
of ''overnor Stuyvesant and council, from accommodating any 
clubs, or selling any ardent liquor, after the ringing of the bell, 
at nine o'clock in the evening. 

In 1648, two runaways were summoned into court by the 
ringing of the bell^ to defend themselves. And in 1677, an 
ordinance was passed by the common council of New-York, 
imposing a fine of six shillings on any members of the corpora- 
tion and jurymen, who should neglect to appear in court at the 
third ringing of the bell. The bell-ringer was anciently the 
court messenger. In 1 66 1 , amid his multif irious otficial duties,*" 
he was to " assistin burying the dead and attend to toll the bell.'^* 
Between the church and gaol, was the corps de garde, 
F. Governeur's Huys: Governor's house. The *' big house" 
was built by Van Tvviller, partly of logs and brick, but a much 
superior one of stone erected by Kieft, 100 feet long, 50 wide, 
and 24 high, with two outside walks the length of the house, the 
one nine, and the other ten feet broad; entry oO feet long, and 
20 broad, with a partition and double chimney, with cellars, 
windows, doors, he. 

The secretary's office was at the north gate, at the north-east 
bastion of the fort. It was built in behalf of Cornelis Tienhoven, 
who was secretary of New-Netherlands under Van Twiller and 
Ki^ft. From this office the first post-rider started, in the com- 
mencement of this year, (1673) to go once a month " to Boston 
and Hartford, Connecticut, and other places along the road." 

The proclamation of governor Lovelace, issued December 
10, 1672, is a document too curious to be omitted. It was in 
the following words : — 

*' Whereas it is thought convenient and necessary, in obedi- 

* See p. 8. 



29 

ence to his Sacred Majesty's Commands, who enjoynes all his 
subjects, in their distinct colon} es, to enter into a strict Ailyance 
and Correspondency with each other, as likewise for the 
advancement of Negotiation, Trade and Civill Commerce, and 
for a more speedy Intelligence and Dispatch of affayres, that a 
messenger or Post bee authorised to sett forth from this City of 
New-Yorke, monthly, and thence to travaile to Boston, from 
whence within that month hee shall returns agame to this City: 
These are therefore to give notice to all persons concerned, 
That on the first day of January next (167")) the messenger 
appointed shall proceed on his Journey to Boston: If any there- 
fore have any letters or small portable goods to bee conveyed 
to Hartford, Connecticott, Boston, or any other parts in the 
Road, they shall bee carefully delivered according to the Direc- 
tions by a sworne Messenger and Post, who is purposely 
imployed in that Aifayre; In the Interim those that bee dispos'd 
to send Letters, lett them bring them to the Secretary's rfficct 
where in alockt Box they shall bee preserv'd till the Messenger 
calls for them. All persons paying the Post before the Bagg bee 
seald up. Dated at New Yorke this 10th day of December 
1672." 

The buildings within the fort were burned during the famous 
negro plot, in 1741. 

S. Stuyvesant Huys. Governor Stuyvesant's house or dwell- 
ing was built about four years before he surrendered his govern- 
ment to the English. It fronted the public wharf (2,) and 
stood on the west side of the present White-hall-street, nearly 
opposite the commencement of the present Water-street. 

Fig. 2. S. The public wharf (2) and harbour or dock, 
(3) were built by the burgomasters of the city about the 
year 1638, Here vessels loaded and unloaded, and a wharfage 
duty was exacted at first of eight stivers per last. The harbour 
(3) was constructed to accommodate vessels and yachts, in 
which, during winter, the barques stationed there might be 
secured against the floating ice; for which large vessels paid 
annually " one beaver, and smaller in proportion, to the city, 



30 

to keep it in order." This wharf and harbour are now a part 
of Whitelinll-street, Whitehall-slip having since been formed 
into the river. 

H. De Waegh. The weigh, or balance. This was erected 
in 165.3, by governor Stuyvesant, and the standard weight and 
measure kept in the balance-house, was according to those of the 
city of Amsterdam. To this standard merchants were obliged 
to conform, and to pay {he eyck-mcester i'or marking their weights 
and measures. Goods were here also brought in bulk and 
weighed, before they were stored in the public store-houses (G.) 

G. '" T Magazijii. The r:5agazines or public store-houses, or 
Pack'huysen of the Dutch Wesi-India Company, the " lords 
patroons" of this city, were situated in TVinckel-straet, (Store- 
street) now Stone-strcct, which then extended from the now 
Whitehall-street to Broad-street. 

Between Winckel-straet, and the docic(3) and the wall along 
the harbour, and in the direction across the bridge(6) at the 
foot of Heeren-gracht (See I.) was the Brug-straet (now 
Bridge-street,) and betw^een this and the dock or wall was that 
portion of the present continuation of Pearl-street, which was 
after this view called Dock-street, on the border of which, be- 
tween de waegh and bridge a small market-house(.5) was erected 
in l656, and a market established every Saturday on the shore, 
because farmers as the order in councel recited, " now and then" 
had brought various articles, " as beef, pork, butter, cheese, tur- 
nips, carrots, cabbages and other products of the country ; and 
on coming to the shore often waited a great while to their loss, 
because the commonalty, or at least the majority, who resided 
at some distance from tlie shore remained ignorant that such 
articles were ofTered for sale." 

In rear of Winckle-street, and between that and Bcever-graclit 
now Beaver-street was an open space called markt-vclt^ where 
a market had been held, and an annual fair or cattle-show 
exhibited, before the market-house on the shore was erected. 
It embraced the plain before the fort, and a lane reaching from 
Market-field(4) to Broad-street, and called Marktvelt-steegje, 



31 

Market-field-lane, is now Market-field-street, or Petticoat-lane 
as it was more generally called within the last half century. 

The most westerly buildings in this view bordered on the 
east side of Breede-ivcg or the Broadway, which on the west 
side was carefully left open for the range of the cannon of the 
fort. Along the west side from the fort, as far as the present 
Trinity Church, was the West-India Company's garden, and 
thence beyond the city walls was the Company's farm, after- 
wards called the Kmgs' farm, and extending to the present 
Duane-street. 

I. Heercn-gracht. Gentlenien's-canal, now (Broad-street.) 
It was called the Moat in the time of Governor Kieft, and the 
Great DyTce at the close of the English Governor Lovelace's 
administration, (1672) when it was ordered to be cleaned, and 
when also the streets of the city were paved. The Dutch called 
it Breede-gracht as well as Heeren-gracht. Three years after 
this view, (viz. 1676) the gracht (canal) was ordered to be filled 
up, and the street levelled and paved. Beever-gracht entered 
tlie Heeren-gracht from the west, and Prince^ s-gracht or Prince- 
straet, (now a continued part of Beaver-street) extended eastward, 
and terminated in a Sloof or ditch, whence has been derived the 
Dame of Sloat-lane. 

In the vicinity of the Heeren-gracht, was the Schapen-wey or 
the sheep pasture, sometimes called the sheep valley. 

From the Heeren-gracht to the Stadt-huys(Yi) inclusive, was 
Hoog-straet, High-street, that is from a point a little north-west 
of the corner of the present Pearl and Broad streets to the south 
corner of the lane leading from Counties-slip into the present 
Stone-street. 

K. Stadt'htySy State House or City-Hall denominated also 
Stadt-Jterberg, or City Tavern, was situated opposite the first half 
moon (R. 1) at the corner of Hoog-straet, (which afterwards was 
called little Dock-street , and now Pearl-street,) and the lane 
running from Counties-slip westward into the street which is now 
a continuation of Stone-street. 

The stadt-herberg was built by governor Kieft, and finished in 



32 

1612, for the purpose, in part, of relieving himself from the bur- 
den of hosipitiility which he had been taxed with, while his 
New-England neighbours tarried at the '* Manhadoes" on their 
voyages to Vir^jinia.* It was built at the expense of the 
West, India company, and called the company's tavern. It 
was afterwards, upon application of the burgomasters, grant' 
ed to the city for the purposes of a stadt-huys or city house, 
as well as the *' great" or " public tavern." This ce- 
lebrated building, in which the most memorable affairs of 
the colony were discussed, and sometimes transacted ; in 
which the schout burgomasters and schepens held their ses- 
sions and courts; in which the transfer from one power to 
another of the sovereignty over the city and colony was three 
times agitated and acceded to; in which the first public school 
ever patronised, was held, in 1652, and probably afterwards, as 
no school house was erected at the date of this view; in which 
the five commissioners of the first court of admiralty, organized 
in 1665 by Gov. Nicholls, convened and held their sessions; in 
which, during the civil war between the houses of Bayard and 
Leisler, our colonial York and Lancaster, one party held pos- 
session, and returned the fire of the other from the fort ; in 
which the gaol of the city was kept for a long time, but in all 
probability, after the destruction of that in the fort during the 
memorable negro-plot : — this famous edifice is supposed by 
some to be yet standing on the spot of the original location, op- 
posite Coenties-slip, and though divided into two departments 
or buildings, is the same that was owned or occupied about 
fifty-five years ago by Brinkerhoof and Van Wyck ; in J806by 
Abraham Brinckerhoof, and now (1826) by his heirs. 

The original building, however, was of stone, and the present 
of brick. The stone building was standing fifty-two years after 
its erection; but when the present buildings were substituted, I 
have not any authority for determining. It is not improbable, 
that the latter were used as the court house or city hall, long 
before the one at the head of Broad-street was afterward* 

* See ]). 26. 



33 

erected. This also has shared the fate of the former — and the 
splendid city hall of the modern city now rears its dome where the 
chesnut spread its branches at the period of the present v\«iw.* 

The first stadt-hvys was a three story house, surrounded with 
a schroeinge.-f 

In front of the City-Hall, Jacobus Van de Water, the mayor, 
with the guard of the citizens, is represented as upon the evening 
parade. In 1673 at the beat of the drum, half an hour before 
sun-set the militia (scuttery) of the city then on guard held 
their parade before the City-Hall. The mayor then proceeded 
to the city-gate(O) and locked it at sun-set, and at sun-rise he 
opened it. 

In front of the City-Hall were also the stocks and whipping- 
post. The ducking-stool, or rather cucking-stool, was not yet 
erected, notwithstanding the Lutheran minister in 1673 pleaded 
in bar to a public prosecution against him for striking a female 
that she " provoked him to it b?/ scolding J^ The Dutch had the 
credit of introducing the wooden-horse, but the cucking-stool 
was reserved for the superior ingenuity of the English, who de- 
riving a sanction for their want of gallantry from the immemorial 
authority of their Common Law, ordered in February, 1692, 
" at a meeting of a grand Committee of the Common Council, a 
pillory, cage and ducking-stool to be forthwith built." 

R. 1. Rondeel, redoubt or half moon| was also in front of the 
City-Hall, and is now a part of Counties-slip. 

In the rear of the City-Hall was (S»/?/Z;-iS»;feeo-, Mire-lane, and a 
tannery extended from the north corner of the lane, passing from 
Coenties-slip to Mire-lane, on which a bark mill stood. Hence 
the present Mill-street. In rear of this was elevated ground, and 
near it was de Warmocs-straety (Street of Vegetables,) probably 

* Governor Lovelace, in 1672, issued a proclamation prohibiting tanners 
from barking the trees on the commons ; and the boys from felling them 
as they had done " for their idle ffancyes or the nutts sake." 

t Moat, ditch, or canal, lined with planks to preve^it the earth from 
tumbling. 

X Literally a "round bulwark." 

5 



51 

tlie present Garden-street, near which were the Citizens' Guard- 
House and the Lutheran Church,(L) or Liithersche Kerch. The 
Lutherans, Jews, and Quakers found very little toleration from 
the Dutch.'*' The English governors were more indulgent. In 
1671 5 Governor Lovelace authorized the Luthern Congregation 
to erect a church and to " seek benevolences from their bre- 
theren here and on the Delaware." The next year, Edmundson, 
a friend from England, was allowed to preach to the society of 
his order. He held at an inn the first friends' meeting in the 
city, and the magistrates attended.t From the City-Hall. following 
the curveture of the shore to Smet-straet, (Fig. 7.) that is from 
Coenties-slip to Hanover-square, was the Cm^e/, Encircling, or 
Exterior-street, Thence from Rondeel or Half-Moon, (R. 2.) 

* One of the ancestors of theBownes of this city, a member of the Society 
of Friends, was banished on account of his religion. Governor Stuyvesaut 
was censured by the West-India Company, and apologized to Bowne after 
his return from Holland. But this early period was remarkable for gloomy 
superstition and bigoted intolerance. The frenzy prevailing in New-Eng- 
land extended its influence to this city. Here, within eight years before the 
date of this view, a man and his wife were tried as witches, and a special 
verdict of guilty brought in by the jury against one of them. Here, one 
year before this view, the inhabitants of Westchester complained to the go- 
vernor and council against a witch who had come among them ; she hav- 
ing previously been condemned as a witch and imprisoned at Hartford. 
During the year of this view a similar complaint was made, but Gov. Colve 
treated it as idle and groundless. A fanatic, however, who this year came 
into the city without consent, and pretending to be divinely inspired, made 
"a terrible hue and cry in the streets," cryingon the bridge and before the 
houses of the Hon. Stynwyck, and John Lawrence, '' Woe, woe to the 
crowne of pride and the drunkaerts of Ephreim: Twoo woes past and 
the third comming, except you repent — Repent, repent — as the kingdom of 
God is at hand — " who, as stated in the record of his subsequent conviction, 
also entered the church, made a great noise, abused with levity the woi'd of 
God, and afterwards went through the Dutch villages on Long Island, to 
New England, and returned to his residence at Oysterbay, having every 
where cried the same words ; was protested against before the notary pub- 
lic in this city, prosecuted by the attorney general, and condemned to be 
severely flogged and banished forever. 

t The same year George Fox also visited the friends on Long-Island, but 
it does not appear that he came to the city. 



35 

which is now a part of Old-slip, towards the Water-poort (M) 
was the Burgers' (or Citizens') path, between the row of build- 
ing (Fig. 9.) and the wall along the shore. 

These buildings were situated on the ground, now the western 
side of Pearl-street aloHg Hanover-square towards Wall-street. 
At the southern end of the row near the Cingel commenced 
Smeer-straet (Greese-street) or Smet'straety* afterwards called 
Smith-street, and now the lower end of William-street. Smith- 
street lane, (Fig. 8.) so called also by the English in 1677, was 
probably the present Sloat-lane» 

(R. 3.) This Rondeel or half-moon, is now a part of Coffee- 
House-slip, aad perhaps the spot on which the Coffee-House has 
been reared. 

These three fortified Ronduyten (R) were built of stone, and 
partly constituted the defence of the East-river side of the city. 

(T) The East-river running between the Island Manhattan 
and Yorkshire, or Long Island. {Oost-Rivier lopende tusschen 
'/ Eylandt Manhattans en Jorkshire ofte H Lange Eylandt.) 

The Block-house at the Water-gate (M) was at the north-east 
corner of the present Pearl-street and Wall-street, where Messrs. 
Hones' auction store is now situated. 

The wall connecting the Ronduyten was of stone, and was de- 
signed to keep out the inundation of the tide and sea. The City 
Wall was of earth, thrown up from a moat dug in 1653 from the 
East to the North river, at first four or five feet deep and ten or 
eleven broad, somewhat sloping at the bottom. On the top of 
this wall was a closely connected line of palisadoes extending 
a like distance from the Water-gate along the north side of the 
present Wall-street (Fig. 10.) to the North-river. Hence was 
derived the name of the present Wall-street, which coursed along 
the southern base of the moat, wall, and line of pallisadoes. 

(M) Water-poort. The Water-port or Gate, sometimes call- 
ed the East-river Gate, was connected with the Block-house at 
the east end of the wall. 

(0)La?id-poort, The Land-port or City-gate, was in the Broad- 

* Smet, a taint, blot or stain. Smidt, a Smith. 



36 

nay, tlience the wall and palisadoes extended to a fortification 
in the rear of the present Trinity Church, which was not huilt 
till eighteen years after the date of this view. This hreast- 
work or battery may have been the same stone wall, four or 
live feet thick, which in 17->1 was discovered back of tlie 
English Church nearly eight feet under ground. 

The fortifications of the city at the time of the present view 
were denominated the fort, walls, bulwarks, Rondeels, curtains 
{gerdijnoi) and batteries. 

(Fig. 11.) The Lady's Valley, a fashionable resort in the 
days of Governor Kieft, was probably the same place which was 
denominated in the period of his successor, Alaagde-pacfjcj (the 
Virgins'-path,) now (1825) INIaiden-lane. It was called the 
Green-lane 1G9-? when tlie Common Council ordered the land 
on the water side, in front of Smitli's Yly, (N) from the Block- 
house to the hill of Mr. Bcekman (Beekman-street) to be sold, 
and that portion from the Block-house to'Green-lane, at 20s'. per 
foot. The Virgins' path proceeded from this Vly in the direc- 
tion of Maiden-lane to the elevated ground. 

N. Smidfs Valcy, abbreviated to Smet or Smce^s Vly, 
Was a marsh extending from the rising ground, a little north 
of the city walls, along the East river, or shore of the pre- 
sent Pearl-street, to the rising ground near Fulton-street. — 
This valley, or salt marsh, was bounded westward by the high 
ground along the rear of the lots on the north western side of 
Pearl-street. The Vly was spoken of as early as the time of 
Van Twiller. The English, adopting the soiind without the 
sense of the word, called it Fly. Four years after the date of 
this view, viz. in 1676, the common council ordered the tan vats 
and slaughter houses to be removed out of the city, and a public 
slaughter house to be erected " over the water without the gate 
at the Smith's Fly, near the half moon." Asher Levy, in part- 
nership with Garret Johnson Rose, uuilt this house, and received 
a grant of its exclusive use. This was tlie foundation of Rose's, 
or Flv-nifirket. 



37 

North of the Vly, and between Beeckman's-hill and the pre- 
sent Frankfort-street, was a waste wet piece of ground, distin- 
guished, subsequently to the present view, by the name of 
BeeckmanVswamp. Jacob street, and parts of Ferry, Gold, 
and William-streets, now cover it. This district of the city is 
still known by the name of '' the Swamp.'' 

P. Weg na H vcrsche tvater. The way to the fresh water. 
North of the rising ground that bounded Beeckman's-swamp, 
was another, but a much lai-ger swamp meadow, or pond. It 
reached the East-river, and was not completely filled up till 
1794. It occupied the area of parts of the present Cherry and 
Roosevelt-streets, Batavia-lane, James,01iver, Catherine, Fayette 
streets, and the Jews'-alley, to Chatham-street. Thence, west- 
ward, it communicated by a stream, called the fresh loater river, 
with the fresh water pool, or de Kolclc. It ^las been fitted up 
within a few years since, and Collect street, and others in its 
vicinity, laid out in this part of the city. Some of our older in- 
habitants remember when the East-river was connected with the 
Kolck, or fresh water pond, by a small rivulet, which the rains 
frequently increased to such a volume, that a log was required 
to be laid across to walk over, and when the North-river was 
similarly connected by a ditch. Near the run was a mill, pre- 
viously to the year I661. In order to obtain more water for 
the benefit of the mill, the valleys were granted to the miller, 
and as the aqueduct, (riool) which he had dug, admitted the salt 
water into the kolck (pool) of the freshwater, to the prejudice of 
the community, he was required to hang a waste gate before the 
aqueduct to stop the salt water, and allow the fresh water to be 
drawn at low water. 

Q. Wint'3Iolen. This wind-mill was erected in lC62, out- 
side of the " City land port,'' (O) on the Company's farm in 
Broadway, between the present Liberty and Courtlandt-streets. 
The old wind-mill having decayed, upon application made to 
the governor and coancil, they gave to the builders of the for- 
mer the stones and iron work of the latter, on condition that 



38 

they should grind gratis for the compan}', "25 schepels* of 
corn per week, if so much should be wanted." 

Beyond the Fresh water river and Swamp-meadow, on the 
East-river, was Nechta?it, the Indiah name of Corlaer's-hook, 
which has been also called Crown-point. Jacobus Van Corlaer 
owned the propert}', and had a plahlalion there, in the time of 
Wouter Van Twiiler. De Vriez, in his Second Voyage to New 
Netherlands, mentions in iGsC), " Corlaer's Plantagnie and Cor- 
laer's Bouwery." He was Van Twiller's trumpeter.t On the 
8th of August, " the first gunner of the fort (says De Vriez) gave 
a frolick. On one of the points of the fort a tent was erected, 
and tables and benches placed for the invited people. When 
the glee was now at its highest, Corlaer the trumpeter began to 
blow, which occasioned a quarrel, and the Koopman of the 
stores, (" Koopman van de WincJcel;^') and the Koopman of the 
cargoes, (" Koopman van de Cargasoenen,) gave the trumpeter 
names. The trumpeter, in revenge, gave them each a drub- 
bing : when they ran home for their swords, and would take 
revenge of the trumpeter, and swaggering and boasting much, 
went to the house of the governor, and would have eaten the 
trumpeter ; but when the wine was evaporated in the morning, 
their courage was somewhat lowered, and they did not endea- 
vour much to find the trumpeter." 

He was living in the time of Governor Stuyvuesant. In l652 
he sold his property to William Beeckman, viz. " a parcel of 
land at the East-river, called Corlaer's-creek, his plantation 
and creek, situated on the Island Manhattans, and named in the 
Indian language Nechtant, with the ground rent, for the sum of 
4500 guilders, {£7^0,) provided the seller pay the ground rent 
now due." 

It has been supposed by some, that he was the founder of 
Schenectady. But this was Antonio Van Corlaer, who was held 
in the most exalted estimation by the Indians of this state, of 

* About 19 bushels. i 

t See also Irviug's History of New- York, by Knickerbocker. 



39 

the Iroquois Confede^cy. He was drowned in Lacus Irocoisa^ 
(Lake Champlain,) and in honour of liim, the Iroquois called the 
lake after his name^ as well as Schenectady, (Corlaer,) and al- 
ways addressed the governors of mis province by the title of 
" Corlaer," or " Brother Corlaer/' 

West of CorlaerVhook and plantation, and north of the fresh 
water,was the Bouwery or farm (whence the Bowery, Bowery-lane 
or street of the city") which, in l651, Governor Stuyvesant pur- 
chased, with " a dwelling house, barn, reek-lands, six cows, two 
horses, and two young nfegroes," for 6400 guilders. (£1066 
135. 4d.) 

The city of New Anisterdam v/as laid out into streets in l656. 
It then comprised about 120 houses, and 1000 inhabitants, in- 
cluding a numerous garrison. In l660, Governor Stuyvesant 
transmitted to the directors for the department of Amsterdam, of 
the West India Company, a platform, or map and survey of the 
lots. In a letter to the governor, they remarked " We are gra- 
tified with the sight of the maps of New Amsterdam. In our 
opinion, rather large spaces are remaining without buildings, and 
the distances between these are too extensive, viz. between the 
Smeer-straet,* the Prince-gracht, or Prince-straet^i and the 
Tui/n-straet ;l so too betAveen the Heeren-straet,^ and the Bea-' 
verS'graciit^W the houses there being, to appearance, provided 
with extensive garden lots. It might, perhaps, be the intention 
to cut off with greater ease new streets, when, on an increased 
population, of course the buildings would be approximated } 
which, however, we leave entirely to your wisdom and discre- 
tion." 

Many of the spaces here spoken of, and hundreds of lots with, 
in the city walls remained vacant at the date of this view. But 
the health and comfort of the citizens were proportionably pro- 

* See p. 35. t See p. 31. X (Garden-street) also called dt Warmots- 
siraet. See p. 33. $ See p. 31. 

II See p. 31. There were two other streets after the survey of the city, 
viz. Hert-straet (Deer-street) and Minquas-strad, the location of which I am 
unable at present to describe. 



O 



40 

nioted by these, and by the numerous orehajjds, gardens, pleasine 
grounds, arbours and forest trees, that ornamented and shaded 
the city. It contained many handsome houses, constructed of 
plain and glazed brick, and of rock stone and covered with red 
and black tiles. Its aspect was diversified by hill and dale. Its 
eminences were clustered with buildings, and the whole formed 
a most delightful perspective from the water. These eminences 
have been levelled, and a much more uniform surface is now exhi- 
bited. Three streets have been made into the East-river,* and 
two into the North ;t much of the very soil on which this Hercu- 
laneum once stood, lies buried several feet beneath the modern 
city, or is concealed by alluvial accumulation. It contained about 
300 buildings,! and 25G0 inhabitants, including two or three com- 
panies in garrison, and three companies of citizen soldiers. 

Thus the old city of New Amsterdam, or New Orange, as it 
was named one hundred and fifty-two years ago, was not much 
larger than the village of New Amsterdam,^ now situated at the 
foot of a chain of interior seas, the shores of which were then 
untrodden by civilized man. Then Schenectady was the frontier 
of the western settlement, in the latitude of this state ; — now the 
mighty rush of population has overspread regions more than one 
thousand miles westward from the river Hudson. 

* Water-street, South and Front-streets, 
t Greenwich and Washington-streets. 

t Fonr years after the date of this view, a list of the building^s was tak<>n. 
There were 368 within the city walls. 

'^ The real name of Buft'alo, the cnpitnl of Erie county. 



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